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Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto

The most peaceful university in Nigeria



The Microbiology Department offers a 4-year programme leading to a B.Sc. Honours Degree in Microbiology. The B.Sc. Microbiology programme commenced as a unit under the Department of Biological Sciences during the 1988/89 academic session with a total of 24 students. The Department graduated its first set of graduates during the 1992/93 session. The unit was upgraded into a full Department in the year 2006. So far a total of twenty two set of students numbering two thousand and thirty (2030) have graduated since the beginning of the programme and the staff strength have increased to 14 Academic Staff and 9 technical and other supporting Staff.

The Department runs programme with the following sub-discipline: General Microbiology, Medical Microbiology including Parasitology, Industrial and Environmental Microbiology. The running of these programmes involves teaching, practicals, tutorial, seminars, field trips and Industrial Attachment during vacation.

Our Mission

The programme is designed to produce Microbiologists who are professionally equipped to meet the needs of the society. The programme focuses on theoretical and applied microbiology with emphasis on soil and medical microbiology, parasitology, industrial and environmental microbiology. The programme is predicated to involve lectures, practical, industrial work experience and field works. Graduates of the programme will have the capacity to pursue career opportunities in medical, agricultural, industrial, environmental sectors, and other related sectors of the economy.

Our Vision

To be a centre of excellence in terms of teaching, research and community service in all fields of human Endeavour i.e. Arts, Humanities, Pure and Applied Sciences.

List of Academic Programs

    B. Sc. Microbiology
    M. Sc. Microbiology
    Ph.D. Microbiology

100 Level Courses


History of the Science of Microbiology. Sterilization and disinfection; Structure, ecology and reproduction of representative microbial genera. Cultivation of microorganisms. Isolation of microorganisms; isolation of bacteria, viruses.


Chemical elements of life; Composition of living matters; Introduction to chemistry of amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acid. Enzymes, their nature, biochemical actions and importance, coenzymes. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, cellular particles, cytoplasm and other physiological fluids; ATP and its function (2nd semester)

BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I: (3 Units)  (L2: P0: T1)

Cell structure and organization, functions of cellular organelles, diversity, characteristics and classification of living things, general reproduction, interrelationship of organisms; heredity and evolution, elements of ecology and types of habitat.

BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II: (3 Units)  (L2: P0: T1)

A generalized survey of the plant and animal kingdoms based mainly on study of similarities and differences in the external features, ecological adaptation of these forms.

CHM 101 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I (4 units) (4 + 0)

Atoms, Molecules and Chemical reaction. Chemical equations and stoichiometry.  Atomic Structure and periodicity.  Modern electronic theory of atom. Radioactivity. Chemical Bonding. Introduction to properties of gases: (Compressibility, Expandability, Volumes of Gases Versus Volumes of Liquids or Solid), Review of ideal gas laws. Equilibria and Thermodynamics. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics: Order and molecularity of chemical reactions, kinetics of first order reactions. Electrochemistry.


Historical survey of the development of organic chemistry. Nomenclature and classes of organic compounds. Homologous series. Introduction to functional groups.  Isolation and purification of organic compounds. Quantitative organic chemistry. Stereochemistry (Conformational and configurational). Determination of structure of organic compounds. Electronic theory in organic chemistry. Saturated hydrocarbons. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Periodic Table and Periodic properties; (Size, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity, Lattice and Hydration Energies). Valence Forces; structure of solids. The chemistry of selected metals and non-metals.

MAT 101: Elementary Mathematics I   (3 Units)(L30:P0:T15)

Elementary set theory: subjects, union, intersection, complements, Ven diagrams. Real numbers, integers, rational and irrational numbers, mathematical induction, real sequences and series, theory of quadratic equations, binomial theorem. Complex numbers: algebra of complex numbers, the Argand diagram, De Moivre’s theorem, trigonometric functions of angles of any magnitude, addition and factor formulae. Angles: rotation, radians, trigonometric ratios, reciprocal ratios, Pythagora’s theorem, special angles. Trigonometric identities, trigonometric formulas.

MAT 103: Elementary Mathematics III   (3 Units) (L30:P0:T15)

Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and idea of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change. Techniques of differentiation. Extreme, curve sketching. Integration as an inverse of differentiation. Methods of integration. Definite integrals. Application to areas and volumes. Two dimensional co-ordinate geometry: straight lines, circles, parabola, ellipse, hyperbola. Tangents and Normal. Pre-requisite- MTH 101

PHY 101: General Physics I (Mechanics & Properties of Matter)              (3 Units)

Space, time and frame of reference, Measurements, Units and dimension, Scalars and Vectors, Kinematics motion in one and two dimensions, fundamental laws of mechanics, force and momentum, Newton’s laws of motion and applications; Parallelogram and triangular laws of forces, applications, Statics and dynamics, moments of a force or torque, principles of moments, equilibrium under parallel forces, couples, torque, centre of gratuity and centre of mass of different objects, linear momentum, conservation of linear momentum, collisions; Work, energy and power, Circular motion, simple harmonic motion, Law of Universal gravitation, circular orbit, and escape velocity, rigid body and rotational motion, moment of inertia, angular momentum and conservation laws. Elasticity; Stress and Strain, Hook’s Law. Young’s modulus, bulk and shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio. Hydrostatics: pressure, buoyancy and Archimedes Principle, Surface tension: Stokes Law and terminal velocity, surface energy, angle of contact, adhesion, cohesion. Capillarity, drops and bubbles, Hydrodynamics streamlines and Bernoulli’s Principle, Laminar and turbulent flow. Reynolds’s number, Viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation for flow of liquid through a tube.

PHY 102: General Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)                               (2 Units)

Electrostatics, Electric force and field, Electric flux, Conductors and current electricity, dielectric and capacitance, Magnetic force, field and magnetic materials, Magnetic effects of current, Electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic oscillations and waves. Applications.

PHY 103: General Physics III (Basic Heat & Waves)    (3 Units)

Temperature and heat: Thermometric properties. Measurement of temperature, heat, thermal expansion and heat transfer, specific heat. heat capacity, latent heat; Molecular properties of matter — solid, liquid and gases. Molecular spacing and molecular movement Brownian movement, Gas Laws: Kinetic theory of Gases, ideal and real gas, comparison of solids, liquid and gases. Waves and wave motion: Transverse waves, Longitudinal waves, Progressive waves, Principle of super position, Stationary or standing waves and their properties, stationary longitudinal waves, Stationary transverse waves, Properties of waves, wave properties of EM waves.

PHY 107: General Physics Laboratory I                                                                (1 Unit)

Quantitative measurements: Treatment of measurement errors, and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques in mechanics and properties of matter and heat will be employed. The experiments include studies of meters, mechanical systems, heat, viscosity, etc. Covered in Physics 101 and Physics 103.

PHY 108: General Physics Laboratory II      (1 Unit)

Experiments related to the topics under PHY 102. The experiments cover topics in waves and electricity.

GST 101: Communication in English I (2 Units)

Effective communication and writing in English, Language skills, Writing of essay answers, Comprehension, Sentence construction, Outlines and paragraphs, Collection and organization of materials and logical presentation, Punctuation.

GST 102: Nigerian Peoples and Culture (2 Units)

Study of Nigerian history, culture and arts in pre-colonial times, Nigerian’s perception of his world, Culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics, Evolution of Nigeria as a political unit, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Concepts of trade, Economics of self-reliance, Social justice, Individual and national development, Norms and values, Negative attributes and conducts (cultism and related vices), Re-orientation of moral and national values, Moral obligations of citizens, Environmental problems.

GST 103: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (1 Unit)

Development of modern ICT, Hardware technology, Software technology, Input devices, Storage devices, Output devices, Communication and internet services, Word processing skills (typing, etc).

GST 104: Use of Library and Study Skills (1 Unit)

Brief history of libraries, Library and education, University libraries and other types of Libraries, Study skills (reference services), Types of library materials, using library resources including e-learning, e-materials, etc, understanding library catalogues (card, OPAC, etc) and classification, Copyright and its implications, Database resources, Bibliographic citations and referencing.

GST 105: Communication in French (2 Units)

Introduction to French, Alphabets and numeracy for effective communication (written and oral), Conjugation and simple sentence construction based on communication approach, Sentence construction, Comprehension and reading of simple texts.

GST 106: Communication in Arabic (2 Units)

Introduction to Arabic alphabets and writing systems, Elementary conversational drills, Basic reading skills, Sentence construction in Arabic.

200 Level

MCB 201 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY    3 Units  (L=2, P=1)

Historical aspects: scope of Microbiology, General; characteristics  of microorganisms, growth and reproduction; sterilization and disinfection; brief survey of microbes as friends and foes.

MCB  202 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY II    3 Units  (L=2, P=1)

Systematic classification of bacteria, fungi viruses, etc.  Microbial variation and hereditary, biological and biochemical reactions of microorganisms; cycles of elements in natures; nitrogen fixation.  Pre-requisite – MCB 201


Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives; methods of isolation and identification; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins; water, acids and bases; acidity and alkalinity, pH and pKa values and their effects on cellular activities; buffers. Chemistry and structures of carbohydrates.(1st semester)


Lipids: Chemistry, structure and biological roles; determination and biochemical application of the structure. Nomenclature of nucleosides and nucleotides, effect of acid and alkaline on hydrolysis of nucleic acid.Structure and functions of major cell components, prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.(2nd semester)

B10 201 GENETICS I: [2 Units] [L2: P0: T0]

Hereditable and non-hereditable characters, probability and test of goodness of fit. Quantitative inheritance, variation on genome structure. The chromosome structure of the eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Linkage, cross-over, sex-linkage,sex chromosomes and sex determination. The mechanism of genetic recombination. Introduction to population genetics.  Application of genetics in crop improvement and environmental protection.

CHM 210 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: (2 UNITS) (2 + 0) Pre-requisite – CHM 101

Kinetic theory of gases and ideal gas laws. Behaviour of real gases – the van der Waal’s equation. First Law of thermodynamics and internal energy, state and non-state functions, enthalpy changes at constant volume and constant pressure, heat capacities for ideal gases. Thermodynamic quantities (w, q, DU, DH) of ideal gases and their relationships. Van der Waals equation and critical state. Principle of corresponding states. Entropy changes in reversible and irreversible processes. Joule-Thomson effect. Pseudo order. Kinetic law for second order reactions. Factors affecting rate of reaction: Introduction to collision and transition state theories in bimolecular reactions and its comparison with Arrhenius equation. Mechanism and theories of elementary processes. Introduction to photochemical reactions. Basic electrochemistry.

CHM 211 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (2 UNITS) (2 + 0) Pre-requisite – CHM 102

Factors affecting structure and physical properties of organic compounds. Factors affecting the availability of electrons. Energy of activation and free radical substitution reactions in alkanes. Chemistry of alcohols, ethers, epoxides, amines, enols and alkylhalides. Nucleophilic Substitution reactions, Mechanisms of substitution reactions (SN1, SN2,). Aromaticity. Various organic reactions e.g. Addition, free radical, elimination reaction etc.

CHM 212 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II: (2 UNITS) (2 + 0) Pre-requisite – CHM 101

Periodic trends and properties of the 1st row transition metals. Use of redox potential and reaction feasibility. Chemistry of s and p-block elements: (Alkali and alkaline earth metals: Hydrides and Complexation tendencies. Structural features of hydrides, halides, oxides and oxyacids). Chemistry of first row transition metals (Salient features, characteristic properties of 3d-elements with reference to oxidation states, colour, magnetic behaviour, and complex formation tendency). Introduction to coordination Chemistry including elementary treatment of Crystal field theory. Elementary introduction of Organometallic Chemistry. Role of metals in biochemical systems.

CHM 213 Analytical Chemistry I (2 units) (2 + 0) Pre-requisite – CHM 101 and 102

Theory of errors. Statistical treatment of data (determination of mean, median, mode; Deviations, accuracy and precision, confidence limits, rejection of results and significant figure convention). Theory of sampling. Chemical methods of analysis; including volumetric (preparation of solutions inclusive) and gravimetric and physicochemical methods, Optical methods. Introductory to Spectroscopic methods of analysis. Separation methods (solvent extraction and different types of chromatographic methods).

GST 211: Communication in English II: (2 Units)

Logical presentation of papers, Phonetics, Instruction on lexis, Art of public speaking and oral communication, Figures of speech, Précis, Report writing.

GST 212: Logic, Philosophy and Human Existence (2 Units)

Part (A) Islamic Philosophy

Definition, scope, relationship between Philosophy and religion (Islam).

Theory of knowledge in Islam. A critical review of the sources of knowledge (perception), experience, reason, intuition etc, with special emphasis on the role of REVELATION as the most reliable source of knowledge. Ultimate reality: Allah and his attributes, critical review of philosophical proofs, Quranic approach to providing the existence of Allah, Predestination and freedom of will as aspect of Allah’s knowledge and power. Prophet -hood and the Day of Judgment. Ethics in Islam

Part (B) Western Philosophy

A brief survey of the main branches of Philosophy: Symbolic Logic, Special symbols in Symbolic Logic-conjunction, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalent and conditional statements; Law of Tort. The method of deduction, using rules of inference and bi-conditionals qualification theory.  Types of discourse: Nature of arguments, Validity and soundness; Techniques for evaluating arguments; Distinction between inductive and deductive inferences, etc.  (Illustrations will be taken from familiar texts, including literature materials, Novels, Law reports and newspaper publications).

GST 213: History and Philosophy of Science (2 Units)

Man – his origin and nature, Man and his cosmic environment, Scientific methodology, Science and technology in the society and service of man, Renewable and non-renewable resources – man and his energy resources, Environmental effects of chemical plastics, Textiles, Wastes and other material, Chemical and radiochemical hazards, Introduction to the various areas of science and technology.  Elements of environmental studies.

GST 214: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

Basic Concepts in peace studies and conflict resolution, peace as a vehicle of unity and development, Conflict issues, Types of conflicts, e.g.  Ethnic/religious/political/economic conflicts, Root causes of conflicts and violence in Africa, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Peace – building, Management of conflict and security. Elements of peace studies and conflict resolution, Developing a culture of peace, Peace mediation and peace-keeping, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Dialogue/arbitration in conflict resolution, Role of international organizations in conflict resolution, e.g. ECOWAS, African Union, United Nations, etc.



A survey of the current status of microbial genetics (Bacteria, viruses, protozons and fungi) including discussion of methods and findings in the areas of mutagenesis, induction, isolation and biochemical characterization of mutants; adaptation, transformation, transduction, conversion and conjugation.  General and specialized methods and techniques in microbial genetics.  Experiments with virulent phages, temperate phages and lysogeme bacteria.  Fungal and other lower eukaryotic genetics.  Pre-requisite BCH 201, BIO 201, MCB 201, 202.


Introduction: Definition of infection.Pathogenicity and pathogens, Host – parasite relationship Virulence and Koch’s Postulates, Methods of isolation. Skin infections: Anatomy and physiology,Normal flora of the skin, Bacterial skin diseases, Skin diseases caused by viruses and Skin diseases caused by Fungi. Respiratory System Infections: Anatomy and physiology, Normal flora, Bacterial and Viral infections of the Upper and Lower respiratory tracts and Fungal infections of the Lungs. Alimentary System Infections: Anatomy and physiology: Mouth, Salivary gland, Oesophagus, Stomach and Small intestine, Pancrease, Liver and Large intestine. Normal flora of the mouth and intestine. Bacterial and Viral diseases of the Upper  and Lower alimentary system. Genitourinary Infections: The Urinary system, The Genital system, Normal flora of the Genitourinary system,  Urinary system infections, Non-venereal genital system diseases: Bacterial vaginitis,  vulvovaginal candidiasis, Staphylococcal Toxic Shock. Sexually transmitted diseases: Bacterial STDs, Viral STDs and Protozoan STD. Nervous System infections:Anatomy and physiology, Bacterial and Viral diseases of the nervous system, Fungal and Protozoan diseases of the nervous system. Wound Infections: Anatomy and physiology, Common Bacterial wound infections, Bacterial bite infectionsand Fungal wound infections.


Non- Specific Immunity : Non- specific defence mechanisms,Specific  defence mechanisms, Cells and tissues involved in host defence, Physical barrier and antimicrobial factors in non-specific  immunity, The complement system -classical and alternative pathways of complement activation, Cytokines, Phagocytosis and inflammation. Specific Immunity: Fundamental features ,The nature of antigens and haptens, Nature of antibodies, The role of lymphocytes in specific immunity, Major histocompatibilty  complex(MHC), Development of the antibody response, Development of the cell mediated immune response, Immunological tolerance and Control of immune response.Application Of Immune Responses: Principles of immunological testing, Precipitation and Agglutination reactions, Immunofluorescence test, The complement fixation test and neutralization, Radio immuno-assay (RIA), Enzyme linked immunosorbent  assay (ELISA) and western blot test, Tests used in cellular immunology, Principles of immunization and Vaccines and immunization procedures. Immunological Disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions, Transplantation immunity, Immunodeficiency disorders and Autoimmune diseasesPre-requisite BCH 201, BCH 201.


Principles of microbial ecology: Bacteria in low nutrient environment, microbial competition and antagonism, microorganisms and environmental changes. Terrestrial environments: microorganisms and Soil, environmental influences in Soil. Aquatic environment. Biogeochemical cycling: Oxygen cycle, Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Sulfur cycle, Phosphorous and other cycles. Bioremediation: The biological cleanup of pollutants: Pollutants and means of bioremediation.

MCB 305: INTRODUCTIORY VIROLOGY              3 Units (L=2, P=1)

Historical aspect:  The virus particles, physical and chemical properties, virus reproduction.  Genetic characteristics, classification and nomenclature.  Method of isolation, purification and identification.  The Bactenophage.  Its important in virology.  Some viruses of plants and animals.  Pathogenesis and control of viral infection.  Laboratory exercises a some techniques of isolation purification and identification.


3 Units  (L=2, P=1)

Aspects of microbial physiology, a review of cell structure a

nd connection growth and death of micro-organisms.  Principles of metabolism: harvesting energy, components of metabolic pathways and scheme of metabolism. Enzymes: Mechanisms and consequences of enzyme action, allosteric regulation, cofactors and coenzymes, environmental factors affecting enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition.Pathways and Processes that fuel aerobic growth of chemoorganotrophs: glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, transition step, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation. Pathways and Processes that fuel anaerobic growth of chemoorganotrophs: Anaerobic respiration, fermentation. Cartabolism of organic compounds other than glucose. Chemolithotrophs, Phototrophs, Carbon fixation. Anabolic pathways. Pr-requisites BCH 201, MCB 201

MCB 307 SOIL MICROBIOLOGY       3 Units  (L=2, P=1)

The characteristics of soil environment; microbial flora and fauna of soil; microbial activities in soil; Nitrogen cycle, mineral transformation by microorganisms. Ecological relationship among soil pathogens. Effect of pesticides on soil microorganisms. Biodegradation and biofuels generation. Microbiology of the rhizosphere.

Pre-requisites MCB 201 and 202.

MCB 308 PATHOGENIC MYCOLOGY      2 Units (L=1, P=1)

Structure, reproduction and classification of pathogenic fungi, laboratory methods of study, pathology and immunology of superficial systematic  mycoses and actinomycoses.  Pre-requisite MCB 201, 202.

MCB 309 MICROBIOLOGY         2 Units  (L=1, P=1)

The distribution, role and significance of micro-organisms in food:  intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of food that affect microbial growth, food spoilage and food borne diseases, micro-organisms.  Indices of food sanitary growth  and food microbiological standards.  Disease of animals transmissible to man via animal food production.  Pre-requisites MCB 201, 202, BCH 201.


Culturing of microorganisms; preparation of media for microbial growth.  Isolation of pure culture; streaking, pour plates etc; subculturing procedures. Staining techniques for differentiation of microorganisms. Enumeration of microorganisms, direct and indirect procedures. Identification of microorganisms to include colonial and cellular morphology and biochemical procedures.

BCH 301: ENZYMOLOGY: (3 Units) L40:P0:T5

Vitamins and co-enzymes, fat and water soluble vitamins, structures and functions of enzymes and co-enzymes. Classification and nomenclature of enzymes.Synthesis of enzymes and inhibition, mechanism of enzymes–catalysed reactions. Effects of temperature, pH, ions and inhibitors on enzymes catalyzed reactions, estimation of kinetic parameters, enzymes activities Km, Vmax, Kietc zymogens activation digestive enzymes etc. production, isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes. Recent advances in enzymology.


Structure, composition and functions of biological membranes.Isolation, characterization and classification of membranes.Biosynthesis of membranes.Molecular organization of membrane components.Natuural and artificial membrane bilayers.The unit membrane hypothesis. Membrane transport system – active versus passive transport systems. Transport of sugars and amino acids.Ionophores.

BCH 308: FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY: (1 Unit) L15: P0: T0

An introduction to the theory and application of physical and chemical methods for determining the constituents of food. Food processing, preservation and storage of traditional foods, roots and stem tubers, fruits and fruit drinks, seeds and grains, green and vegetables. Food poisoning and intoxication, prevention and cure.

BCH 310: BIOENERGETICS (1 Unit) L15: P0: T0

High-energy compounds; chemical potentials. Electrochemical potentials, electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation, regulation of ATP production. Chemical thermodynamics, oxidations and reductions.


Practical laboratory exercises in areas of interest of academic staff to out across a wide spectrum of general biochemistry. Laboratory practical may be arranged on the basis of 6 hours per week for a semester or 3 hours per week for two semesters.


Theory, principles and applications of UV/Visible Spectrometry, IR Spectrometry, Flame Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Flourescence and Phosphorescence spectrometry. Nuclear Magnetic resonance and Electron spin resonance. Introduction to Electro-Analytical Techniques. X-ray and radiochemical methods of analysis. Other instrumental methods: Refractometry, Polarimetry, Polarography and Calorimetry.

GST 311: Entrepreneurship and Innovation (2 Units)

This course is an introductory course for studying Entrepreneurship for the first time.  The design and flow of the course are aimed at creating awareness, providing the knowledge and skills that are important to achieving success in all human endeavors. 

GST 312: Venture Creation and Growth    (2 Units)

Concept of Business and New Value Creation Financing; Theories of Growth: An Overview; Sources of Funds; Marketing; New Opportunities for Expansion; Ethics and Social Responsibility; Managing Transition: From Start Up to Growth.



Under the supervision of staff, the students are expected to select a seminar topic for detailed study, using library methods.  The emphasis should be on recent advances in the chosen field.  The courses is expected to give the student the opportunity for independent thought and expression.  The study will result in seminars and symposia.


A student will be expected to carry out a detailed field research investigation under supervision of a staff in any special area of microbiology and biotechnology, write it up as a project report and examined for his/her knowledge of the work before a panel of external and internal examiners in an oral examination.

MCB 403 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY                 2 Units (L=1, P=1)

History and development of antimicrobial drugs: Discovery of antimicrobial drugs,Discovery of antibiotics, development of new generations of drugs. Features of Antimicrobial drugs: Selective toxicity, Antimicrobial action, Spectrum of activity, Tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, effect of combination of antimicrobial drugs, adverse effects of drugs, resistance to antimicrobials. Mechanisms of action of Antibacterial drugs: Drugs that inhibit cellwall synthesis, Drugs that inhibit protein synthesis, Drugs that inhibit Nucleic acid synthesis, Drugs that inhibit metabolic pathways, Drugs that interfere with cell membrane integrity.  Concepts of antibiotic sensitivity: Determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, conventional disc diffusion methods. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs: mechanism of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Mechanisms of action of  Antifungal drugs, Mechanisms of action of  Antiprotozoan drugs.


Micro-organisms as reagents in quantitative analysis.  Selection of text organisms, for essays (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc.)  Responses of micro-organisms used in essays.  Obtaining and measuring responses.  Preparation of essay sample.  Methods of essays.  Interpretation of results.  Aspects of quality control.  Plant and equipment sanitation.  Microbiology  standards and specifications.  Pre-requisites MCB 201/202; BCHM 201.


Statistical applications to epidemiology.  Nature of epidemiological investigations  spectrum of infection.  Hatred Immunity Latency of infections.  Multi-factorial systems in epidemics.  Zoonoses.   Antigenic drifts Biological products for immunization – Recommended Immunization schedules.  International control of infections diseases.  Pre-requisites MCB 201/201; MCB 302

MCB 406 MEDICAL VIROLOGY                       3 Units  (L=2, P=1)

Attention will be given to the viruses pathogenic for man and animals with emphasis on virulence’s types of disease produced, methods of control.  The bacteriophage will be used in same of the laboratory practical, to demonstrate the characteristics of the viruses.  Representatives’ animal viruses will also be studied in the laboratory to demonstrate the nature of viral virulence.  Methods of viral cultivation and identification with special reference to tissue culture techniques will also be introduced. Pre-requisites MCB 101/102.


Fermentation systems; design and use of fermenters. Microorganisms of Industrial importance. Classification of microbial products by use. Relationship between primary and secondary metabolism; characteristics, sources and strain improvement of industrial microorganisms. Microbial growth and product formation in industrial processes; media for industrial fermentations. Foaming, Major products of Industrial Microbiology: enzyme production and immobilization; production of vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, organic acids, beer and wine

MCB 408: MICROBIAL ECOLOGY  2 Units    (L=1, P=1)

Microbes and ecological theory. Physiological, morphological and genetic adaptations of microorganisms to their environment. Microbial interactions; microorganisms in natural ecosystems. The life of microorganisms in air, springs, rivers, lakes and seas. Cycling of elements in water and sediments.

MCB 409: MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY   3 Units    (L=2, P=1)

Survey of animal parasites in vertebrate host, Animal association and parasitic adaptation. Ecological niche, host parasitic interaction. Host specificity. Periodic phenomenon. Transmission of parasites. Effect of host migration its parasitic population. Evolution of parasites. Control of parasites and parasitic diseases.


Biogenesis of fossil fuels with emphasis on the role of microorganisms. Petroleum prospecting and secondary recovery. Microbial corrosion of pipes and equipment. Methanogenesis and methanotrophy. Effects of oil spill on microbial activities in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biodeterioration and biotransformation of hydrocarbons.

MCB 499 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING 2 Units   (L=1, P=1)

Students will be posted to industrial establishments such as food processing, brewing, distillery, pharmaceutical, research institutes or medical and health institutions. A report to be submitted for grading.

BUA 415         Marketing Management                   2 Units

Roles and Importance of marketing management, Customer Analysis, Market Planning and Analysis, Product Planning and Development, Pricing, Managing the distribution Channel; Promotion Tools; Evaluation of Total Marketing Effort and Marketing Audit.

Dr. A. B. Rabah
Head of Department



Shuaibu Bala Manga
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Ahmadu Ali Farouq
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Ummu K. Muhammad
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Maryam Lami Riskuwa-Shehu
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Aliyu S. Baki
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Aliyu Ibrahim Dabai, Ph.D
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Auwal Gambo
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Abdulkadir Abdulmumin Usman
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Muhammad Abdullahi
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Abubakar Muazu Jodi
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Aminu Yusuf Fardami
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Muhammad Kabir Nataala
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Umar Balarabe Ibrahim
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Shuaibu Mohammed Gazali
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Muhammad Zainab Sanusi
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